'Jew the Eternal Wanderer' has functioned for centuries in biblical tradition and folk culture. As a legend and myth he was also present in European literature. He has found a stable place in the imagination and ficitionalized accounts in Polish prose and poetry. However, the message he carried was indeed real. He originated in the tradition of Judaism and carried in himself the curse of a nation accused of crucifying Jesus. Over the ages the legend encountered reality and there was a mutual feedback between them. Exile and wandering which was the share of the people of Israel found its tragic end in the 20th century, an age of the Holocaust, but also of the creation of the state of Israel, where the 'Eternal Wanderer' found his homeland. .