KURBAN IN KYZ ANA TEKKE - MODERN TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE SACRIFICE TRADITIONS IN THE MUSLIM SANCTUARY IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA (Polish title below)
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(Polish title: Kurban w Kyz Ana Tekke - wspolczesne przemiany tradycji ofiarniczych w sanktuarium muzułmanskim w połnocno-wschodniej Bulgarii). The article discusses the problems of Islam in modern Bulgaria and focuses on kurban, i.e. a practice of animal sacrifice by the tomb of a Muslim saint, in the so-called tekke. Bulgarian Islam is internally divided - there are the Sunnis and the Shiites, there is an ethnic diversity and local diversity. The followers of Bulgarian Islam include Sunni Muslims: Turks, Turkish Gypsy, Bulgarian Muslims (sometimes called Pomaks or Bulgarian Mohamedans), Tartars and Bulgarian Aliani, who are believed to be Shia Muslims.Religious organisations revived after the fall of the communist regime. Foreign national models of Islam penetrated into Bulgaria as a result of the education of clergy in Islamic states and as a result of globalisation processes. Many of these models are in opposition to the local traditions of Bulgarian Muslims, which include, e.g. the pilgrimage to tekke. The custom of blood sacrifice in tekke is becoming more and more popular, although veneration of the saints is in contradiction with the principles of the institutional Sunni Islam that gains in strength in Bulgaria. This article presents the changes in modern Muslim religiosity in Bulgaria and the dissonance between the Islam represented by Muslim clergy and the local variants of Islam. The material used in the article was collected during field research conducted by the author in 2008-2010 in Kyz Ana Tekke (120 km west of Varna) and in nearby villages.
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