MAKE STRANGE FAMILIAR AND MAKE FAMILIAR STRANGE: METAPHORIC THINKING IN CHILDREN FROM 4 TO 10
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The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between two cognitive functions of metaphor in children from 4 to 10: make strange familiar and make familiar strange. The authoress tested if there are any stages in the development of cognitive functions of metaphor in this age period, to what extend metaphoric thinking may be influenced by training, if metaphoric thinking depends on situation and the sense of control in children. The original Test of Three Names (TTN) was used for measuring metaphoric thinking. Six studies were carried out and 220 children were tested. The results show three, not two, separate cognitive functions of metaphor which can be explained in terms of 1) completing, 2) elaborating, 3) transforming of cognitive schemata. Ability to transform cognitive schemata, crucial for metaphoric thinking, increased with age and was not influenced by 'technical' training but by context in which a metaphor emerges. An increased sense of internal control including beliefs of ones incompetence was negatively related to metaphoric thinking.
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