Skills of creating, sharing and utilising knowledge will determine global competitiveness in the 21st century to the large extent. Taking advantage of the global knowledge resources by our country demands the elaboration of adeąuate governmental programmes. The system of capital allocation in most profitable implementations must be worked out, likewise the national innovation system. Expenses on research and development in both public and private sectors should increase. It is necessary to elaborate development programmes of new sectors/ branches based on e.g. rnolecular biology, genetic engineering or modern technologies. Finally, Polish participation in the EU research programmes has a remarkable significance.