FROM PESSIMISM TO HOPE. LOVE IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER AND SIGMUND FREUD'S GRASP
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The article presents two grasps of love - in Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophy and Freud's psychoanalysis. A similarity between Schopenhauer's metaphysics and Freud's psychoanalysis is shown. Schopenhauer's 'will' and Freud's 'id' are almost the same, though grasped in two different manners. Just like 'id', ' will' becomes the source of misfortune, and culture with its ethical values (particularly love) can become remedy for evil and suffering. Separating 'eros' from 'agape', Schopenhauer placed sexual love as a handmaid to 'will' and considered it the source of human suffering. In this understanding, love of one's neighbor becomes liberation from suffering, but it is a seeming consolation, as such love is in fact a concealed egoism. Introducing the notion of sublimation, Freud made a passage between 'eros' and 'agape'. Love, wherever its source, in Freud's grasp assures security and thus gives happiness which is the final purpose of everyone.
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