This paper outlines the theoretical conceptualization of women's empowerment by feminist thought and discusses practical aspects concerning the implementation of this principle into various gender equality programs and concepts and the development discourse. The text begins with a discussion of feminist re-conceptualization of the term empowerment. This concept was adopted by feminism as a principle of understanding women as actors of change, as it represents a process of shifting from a passive state towards an active state of control over material and intellectual resources. Empowerment is interpreted as a contextual category, while empowerment patterns are not transferable to different conditions. Hence, its generalization decreases its political potential. The text further discusses women's empowerment as a concept adopted by feminist activists from 'South' in connection with their criticism of Western feminism. Finally, the text offers an overview of selected women's empowerment initiatives.