DIMENSIONS OF READING MOTIVATION AND READING ACHIEVEMENT IN 3RD AND 7TH GRADE STUDENTS
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Our study was based on recent research on reading motivation that emerged from strategic learning theory and focused on connections between cognitive, motivational and social aspects of reading (Baker, Afflerbach, Reinking, 1996; Guthrie, Alvermann, 1999; Baker, Wigfield, 1999). The purpose of the study was twofold: first, to develop and adapt the instruments for measuring the dimensions of reading motivation for younger and older primary school students, and second, to find the differences in motivational dimensions according to students' reading achievement and their sex in both groups. 1042 third grade (509 girls and 533 boys) and 1124 seventh grade (592 girls and 532 boys) students from different Slovene primary schools participated in the study. A 26-item questionnaire was constructed to measure reading motivation in younger students. Factor analysis (varimax rotation, screen test) revealed three factors: interest in reading, lack of self-efficacy and self-efficacy in oral reading. Further statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed significant main effects for reading achievement and sex in interest and in lack of self-efficacy in reading. Good readers had the highest results in both factors and poor readers the lowest results. In addition, girls had higher results than boys in both factors. Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (Guthrie, Wigfield, 1997) was adapted for older students. Factor analysis (varimax rotation, screen test) of 54-item questionnaire revealed four reading motivation factors: external motivation, interest and reading in social context, involvement and immersion in reading, and lack of self-efficacy. Further analysis (ANOVA) showed significant main effects according to students' reading achievement in all four factors. Good readers had the highest and poor readers the lowest results in external motivation, in interest and reading in social context and in involvement and immersion in reading. The results for lack of self-efficacy were reversed. Significant differences were also found according to students' sex. Girls constantly showed higher results in external motivation, in interest and reading in social context and in involvement and immersion in reading than boys. Implications for educational practice as well as future research are discussed.
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