IRAQ: THE AMBITIONS OF KING GHĀZĪ AND THE POLICY OF YĀSĪN AL-HĀSHIMĪ (1935 – 1936)
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Tribal grievances in Iraq had mostly been triggered by glaring injustice connected with the land and irrigation rights of particular tribes. However, some of the issues related to the grievances of the Shīca as a whole. The sheikhs also drew up a petition asking the king to dismiss the Prime Minister cAlī Jawdat al-Ayyūbī and to dissolve parliament. When this produced no result, direct action followed. In January 1935 unrest erupted in the mid-Euphrates region. It was at this point that Ḥikmat Sulaymān, an opponent of the prime minister and a leading member of the Patriotic Brotherhood Party, urged his old friend General Bakr Ṣidqī (commanding officer of the southern region) to refuse to suppress the tribal unrest. Faced by this and by dissent within his cabinet, cAlī Jawdat al-Ayyūbī resigned. His successor Jamīl al-Midfacī was then confronted by a growing tribal rebellion in the Dīwānīya region, led by two powerful tribal shaykhs, cAbdalwāḥid al-Ḥājj Sikkar and Shaclān al-cAṭīya, which had been in close touch with Yāsīn al-Hāshimī, leader of the Patriotic Brotherhood Party. When Ṭāhā al-Hāshimī, the chief of staff of the Iraqi army and brother of Yāsīn, refused to crush the revolt, Jamīl al-Midfacī’s suspicions of a plot were confirmed and he too resigned. Yāsīn al-Hāshimī, portrayed as the only man who could save the situation (because he had largely instigated it), was then asked by the king to form a government in March 1935, having effectively carried out a coup d’état against his rivals.
42 – 60
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