Jugoslávská antititovská emigrace v Praze v letech 1954-1968. Od ukončení činnosti směrem k novým nadějím
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YUGOSLAV ANTI-TITO EMIGRATION TO PRAGUE BETWEEN 1954-1968. FROM ENDING ACTIVITIES TO NEW HOPE REBORN
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During the period of the Soviet-Yugoslav split in the years 1948-1954 one of the groups of Yugoslav anti-Tito emigration was active in Czechoslovakia. This study deals with the responses of its members to the process of Normalisation which gradually gathered pace after Stalin’s death in the spring of 1953. Even then emigrants had lived in isolation for a longer period of time; their activity was formalised completely and most of them had become disillusioned and lost their political and life focus. In September 1954, alongside the ending of the anti-Tito campaign, Moscow issued a directive on the dissolution of emigrant organisations in the USSR and the countries of the Eastern bloc. Many emigrants thus lost their jobs; they found themselves in uncertain positions and feared for their futures. They responded to the new Soviet policy in a contradictory and confused manner. Two main tendencies, however, manifested themselves: to return to the homeland or to settle abroad permanently? The attitude of the Yugoslav authorities towards the members of the „Inform Bureau“ prevented a large-scale repatriation. Several of the first returnees, despite being given earlier assurances, were handed out long-term prison sentences. The events in Hungary in 1956 and the consequent deterioration of Soviet-Yugoslav relations further strengthened the original attitudes of the remaining emigrants. From the late 1950s some of them began to consider the resumption of their activities and did undertake several initiatives in this direction from the early 1960s. The leading role in this was played both by emigrants in the Soviet Union – primarily the former leading personality of the Prague Group Slobodan Lale Ivanović – and new emigrants, led by Vlado Dapčević, who fled from Yugoslavia to Albania and from there to the Soviet Union in 1958. However, in Czechoslovakia these activities met with little response. The majority of the emigrants refused to become involved in politics and to have their lives complicated by activities which did not enjoy the support of the Czechoslovak regime. Within the resurrected movement Josip Milunić represented the moderate stream, whereas primarily Pero Dragila and his wife Dušanka voiced the views of the radical stream which was even prepared to criticise the USSR and voiced its support for China. The new rapproachement between Moscow and Belgrade, which started in 1963, launched a new wave of repatriation. One section of progressive minded emigrant activists linked it with the opportunity to participate in the process of re-integrating Yugoslavia amongst the Soviet Bloc countries. However, this vision soon proved to be an illusion. For this reason only several individuals returned from Czechoslovakia to Yugoslavia. Josip Milunić, the informal group leader, rejected this possibility straightaway. Any contacts with „Tito‘s men“ continued to be unimaginable for the radical group around the Dragilas - husband and wife. Both streams of the „Inform Bureau“ emigration awaited a new opportunity for their return to the political stage in the second half of the 1960s.
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