MYSLENIE OSVIETENSTVA A RUSKÁ INTELEKTUÁLNA IDENTITA
Enlightenment thought and Russian intellectual identity
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The Enlightenment represents a frequently reflected and, at the same time, also updated tradition. The Enlightenment ideas have become a theoretical-methodological base for thinking as such by its connection to a social or social-political praxis, what can be seen even in the contemporary confrontation with the Enlightenment legacy. The paper analyses the Enlightenment as a unique historical phenomenon – it deals with its explicit as well as its practical-political features – within the Russian milieu. In the basic outline, the paper presents a critical survey of the selected bibliographical sources. It primarily focuses on a historical-philosophical problematics and identification of three phases which can be found within a genesis of the Enlightenment thinking in Russia. The second part of the paper offers the characteristics of distinctive intellectual environments participating in a forming of the Enlightenment tradition in Russian thinking, and overlapping into actual political and social happenings. To these environments belong aristocratic associations, the Masonic lodges, and also educational institutions established and controlled by the state – spiritual academies and universities.
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