The paper is the outcome of search for various forms of primitivism tendency in 20th century fine art in Slovakia. The development period of art called postmodernity is at the same time strong actualisation of the culture primitivism. It occurs not only as a type of “new wildness” painting in style level, but also as a sign or sign group which refers to “pre-cultural” or “counter-civilisation” ways of life in semantic sphere. Specific feature of Slovak postmodern primitivism is an artistic evocation of the Paradise and utopia images. From the primitivism point of view, there are presented contextually connected motifs of Arcadia, utopic lands, “lost Paradise” and “lost childhood”.