Esencjalizm vs antyesencjalizm – gdzie leży meritum sporu o definicję sztuki?
ESSENTIALISM VS. ANTI-ESSENTIALISM. WHAT IS THE POINT OF THE CONTROVERSY?
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The goal of the article is to identify the main point of controversy between essentialism and anti-essentialism in the dispute about the definition of art. I construe the positions as two incommensurable ways of understanding how to define art: precisely what functions its definition should include; in what way and on what basis it should be formulated. I claim that the main motive of the divergence, and the hidden point of the controversy is not whether artworks have general properties (“the essence of art”), but the meta-aesthetic assumptions about how to conceive general properties at all and how one comes to know them. These assumptions can be identified by distinguishing between two aspects of the method of definition, habitual and verbal. A habitual definition of art is one that is formulated in competent verdicts within the art world, while a verbal reconstruction of the presupposed presumptions is the aim of aesthetics.
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