Русский православный «модернизм»: Николай Бердяев в споре об «ортодоксии», ереси и христианской вселенскости
Russian Orthodox “Modernism”: Nikolai Berdyaev the Debate over “Orthodoxy,” Heresy and Christian Universality
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Taking into consideration and interpreting the notions repeated in the debate, present in the analysed texts by Berdyaev, such as orthodoxy, heresy, “modernism,” the author demonstrates that the critical assessment of the historic Orthodox Church (the Church Abroad), with its obscurantism, “provincialism,” authoritative and dogmatic (rigid) consciousness, is in a close relationship with anthropological and personalistic reflection of the Russian thinker, with his pneumatology. The reason for that is the fact that the fundamental criteria of the Berdyaevian debate are the categories of the person and the religious subject, freedom, creativity and personal (individual) conscience. In Berdyaev’s texts the understanding of these categories allows for making the distinction between the two perspectives on Christianity and its two types: the “old” one (conservative-rigid) and the “new” one – creative. The latter (according to Berdyaev) is connected to the manner of perceiving the Revelation and assumes an active and creative role of the human as a subject accepting the Truth of the Revelation and making It the subject of his or her spiritual experience.
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