Stulecie zdobycia południowego bieguna Ziemi
Centenary of the Attainment of the South Pole of the Earth
Languages of publication
The turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is a period of intensive research on Antarctica. It was during this period that the South Pole was attained. There were four expeditions which attempted to reach the South Pole: 1. The British National Antarctic Expedition, (1901-1904), on the ship "Discovery", was led by Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912). The British tried to reach as far south as possible and on December 31, 1902 they reached 82 °17'S. 2. The British Antarctic Expedition (1907-1909) on the ship "Nimrod", led by Ernest Shackleton. On January 9, 1909 the expedition reached 88 °23'S. 3.The Norwegian expedition on the ship "Fram" (1911-1912), led by Roald Amundsen (1872-1928). Amundsen and Olav Bjaaland (1873-1961), Oscar Listing (1871-1936), Helmer Hanssen (1870-1956) and Sverre Hassel (1876-1928) on December 14, 1911 were the first to reach the geographic South Pole. 4. Scott's expedition on the ship "Terra Nova" (1911-1913). The expedition to the South Pole began on November 1, 1911. Scott, Henry R. Bowers (1883-1912), Edgar Evans (1876-1912), Lawrence Oates (1880-1912) and Edward A. Wilson (1872-1912) reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912. They all died on their way back. The participants of all expeditions led to attain the South Pole carried out observations, collected various samples and conducted scientific observations. Afterwards, the collected data and objects were compiled scientifically, sometimes for many years on. During that time, the following, among other, was discovered: the shelf character of Ross Ice Shelf, the Taylor Valley (the first of the snow-free Antarctic "oases"), setting up the basic stratigraphy of the Victoria Land mountains, about 40 thousand various geological and biological specimens were brought home, the latter belonged to more than 2,000 species of plants and animals, among which, more than 400 were species new to science.
Publication order reference