This paper presents the critical theory of Rudolf Steiner’s cognition. His early philosophical works were inspired by Kant’s philosophy. At that time, he attempted to find a synthesis between the sensory world and the mental/spiritual one. Steiner’s early thought represented the epistemological position characteristic of Kantian bio-philosophy. It was an influential current of gnoseology in the 19th-century. The author presents main notions of Steiner’s philosophical positions such as: perceiving, image, feeling and thinking.