EXPANZIA ÚNĚTICKEJ KULTÚRY SO ZRETEĽOM NA NÁLEZY Z ÚZEMIA SLOVENSKA
Expansion of the Unetice Culture with the significance on the finds from the territory of Slovakia
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The study is dedicated to the problem of expansion of the Únětice Culture on the territory of Slovakia in the Early Bronze Age. It critically follows the experience elaborated about centenary research on the Slovak Únětice Culture. It follows the chronological and territorial framework of expansion, but even the causes and options of its realization. Archaeological finds on the expansion of this entity from the original territory to Slovakia are divided into three groups. The first group is associated with infiltration of the Únětice Culture into the settlement area of the Epi-Corded Ware Cultural Complex, reflected in the so-called small mobility. Further, it observes the intensification occurrence of the artefacts and cultural expressions of the Únětice Culture during the late classical phase of the Nitra Culture and the culmination of this process during the so-called Nitra-Únětice phase. In this phase, more extensive migrations were performed, showing attributes of the so-called great mobility – expansion of the Únětice Culture to the east of the river Morava. The second group already documents settlement of the Únětice Culture in western Slovakia. The progress is observed in the prehistoric crafts as well as changes in the burial rite, settlement dynamics and others. After establishment of the classical phase of the Únětice Culture and substantial innovation of economic sphere, ‘Carpathian colouration’ occurred in its inventory. It is considered as accelerated development and the beginning of the so-called Únětice-Maďarovce phase. The Únětice Culture in the observed area demonstrably accelerated social development and contributed to the birth of proto-urban civilization of the advanced period of the Early Bronze Age. The third group documents finds of the Únětice Culture outside of its settlement area. They point to the spread and impact of the Únětice goods, but also to the decay of its characteristic production at the end of the Early, eventually at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. Cardinal discovery is its ‘exchange-trade-prospector’ background and association to the main communications and exchange-trade routes in the Early Metal Age. Migrations connected with the Únětice Culture may have been realized through overland, as well as river connections. Routes leading through the Bratislava Gate or through the Bratislava West Carpathian passes are hypothetically considered.
203 – 321
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