The article offers an overview of Anglo-American and German historiography on masculinities and wars in the twentieth century. It reviews key debates in the field of gender history and places the history of masculinities into the framework of recent cultural history. The main works are presented as well as broader conclusions by which the history of masculinities has enriched historians’ current understanding of World War I, the interwar years and their instability, and Nazi Germany. The article also summarizes recent scholarship on the reformulation of masculinities in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States after World War II and its impact on the establishment of the post-war gender order. It thus offers perspectives hitherto neglected by Czech scholarship on gender and war.