DIPLOMACIA POSTUPNÝCH KROKOV: EGYPTSKO-IZRAELSKÉ DOHODY O ODPÚTANÍ SÍL
Step-by-step diplomacy: Egyptian-Israeli agreements on disengagement of forces
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The fourth Arab-Israeli war and the brief oil embargo that followed produced a change in the American perception of the increasingly complex Middle East crisis. The Arab ability to plan, co-ordinate, and execute a successful military attack and to profoundly disturb the status quo had now been clearly demonstrated. The issue of regional dependency on Middle East petroleum also became a matter of concern in the West, especially among the allies of the United States. There was, furthermore, a sharpened awareness worldwide of the degree to which local conflicts in the area could bring the superpowers dangerously close to confrontation. US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger ensured the settlement that ended the October War. Within his “shuttle diplomacy” he visited all the relevant countries and helped to secure the Egyptian-Israeli agreement over the cessation of hostilities signed on 11 November 1973. The first agreement, signed on 18 January 1974, while separating Egyptian and Israeli forces, allowed limited Egyptian troops on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal, a disengaging zone or no-man’s land supervised by the UN emergency forces in the western part of Sinai, and limited Israeli forces west of the strategic Giddi and Mitla passes. Anwar as-Sādāt had assured Kissinger in December 1973 that he would have the Arab oil embargo lifted, and by 18 March 1974 the embargo was withdrawn. Kissinger’s diplomacy had raised Arab expectations that the United States could promote a settlement based on an Israeli withdrawal. The new American President, Gerald Ford faced with Israeli intransigence began to think of a comprehensive peace settlement including Palestine and in August 1975 Kissinger returned to the Middle East. His bargaining produced a second disengagement agreement between Israel and Egypt signed in September 1975.
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