Emigracja polska po akcesji do UE – wyjazdy i powroty?
POLISH EMIGRATION AFTER THE ACCESSION TO THE EU – GOING THERE AND BACK?
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The area of collaboration in migration policy begins to play more and more important role among many facets of European integration. It emerges of a conflict of two types of pressures existing and working in opposite directions within European societies and economies. On the one hand, EU member states suffer from an unsound demographic condition, low natural population growth rate and decreasing supply of labour force. On the other hand, we have to deal with resentment of majority of the EU citizens to “aliens” which has been strictly relatedwith terrorist attacks raids against New York, Madrid and London. Where should we reach, then, to make up the labour force deficit? Temporarily, old EU states have found a source of immigrants from the new members. This allows them to postpone the problem of supporting the way their economies and social systems work. The Author analyses situation in an emigration country (Poland), benefits and costs of migration, the problem of emigrants’ identity, their integration or alienation in host societies as well as attempts to answer the question about mechanisms of emigrants’ returns to their countries of origin. It is the market that acts as the simplest and most effective regulator. This, however, must not be regarded as delivering the states from an obligation to apply for indirect measures. Democratic societies are and indeed have to be free from restrictions, either administrative or legal, to free movement of people, even where this involves negative consequences for an emigration country. However, as we learn from experiences of such countries as Ireland, improving condition, economic growth and raised living standards in migrant workers’ home countries act as very efficient brake to an outflow of labour force. Other factors playing important roles in this context, beside economic one, include the element of life quality, social infrastructure as well as an offer in the areas of skills improvement and leisure. In fact, all these factors jointly contribute to either remain in one’ country or to come back in the case of those who left it in the first place.
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