Democracy and social justice have been debated for decades, not only in the academic circles, but also in practice in most societies. It continues to be a central theme in various discourses in international relations and in domestic politics, particularly after the end of the Cold War. Societies have been changing, as a result of which the theoretical framework within which we discuss democracy and social justice also evolves. This paper presents opinions on this subject expressed in Vietnam in the recent discussions in journals and in other forms of publication with focus on how the democratization process is implemented in this country ruled by the Communist Party. Given the present world context, one can hardly mention democratization in a communist country, but author points out that democracy is possible when both internal and external factors are strong enough to drive it, which includes the change in political mindset of the leaders of the Communist Party, the emergence of societal forces such as more open media, NGOs, social groups, and the impact of economic integration and globalization. He also points out some constraints of democracy in Vietnam. The conclusion is that democratization is possible in Vietnam and at present progresses step by step, but more sa a top-down process.