In contemporary discussions the idea of citizenship is strongly associated with the French Revolution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed in 1789. The basis for citizenship in democratic countries is the recognition of universal principles of the law and an attitude of obedience and loyalty to the constitution. Currently in Europe, understanding of and faithfulness to constitutional law is a factor of the self-awareness and maturity of a liberal society. However, citizenship is not modern achievement: it was born in ancient Greece. It is there that the first notion of the citizen was formed. The free inhabitants of the city-states were called politai, people actively engaged in public affairs. The Greeks connected citizenship with virtue. Reflection upon the notions of the citizen and virtue shows that the core of the Greek state was prudence and justice in seeking the common good. The virtues form the canon of the attitudes that constitute the ideal of citizenship, and an ethos built on such attitudes can create fair and wise rules of life.