The health school system during the interwar period in Slovakia provided pregradual preparation and postgraduate education for doctors, nurses and midwives. The education of the other categories of the healthcare professionals was conducted mainly in the form of short courses. In the proposed study, we have been focused to the professional preparation of two categories of the healthcare professionals: education of nurses and midwives. We describe that time legislation that determined the conditions for establishment of the educational institutions for nurses and midwives, the methodology of teaching and the methods of graduation of study. Attention is paid as well to the analysis of factors that necessitated the establishment of the postgraduate education for the midwives in the follow-up courses. The conclusion points to the benefits of the professionalization of nurses and midwives for improvement of health care for various groups of population.