The article presents the contemporary feminist stream of new materialism, and compares and contracts it with the linguistic branch of poststructuralism which has been criticized by new materialism for neglecting matter. The paper first discusses points of departure these two streams share, specifically, a critique of Western metaphysics, and in particular the fundamental interrogation of dualities and the idea of a stable inner essence in Western thought. Consequently, the article shortly introduces the starting points of new materialism and presents Judith Butler’s ideas on matter which are pivotal for the comparison that follows. The comparison of the two streams concentrates on the following issues: ontology, power, the abject, difference, subject and embodiment. The article stresses strong and weak points of both the streams and presents them as complementary rather than contradictory approaches.