The fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe and the emergence of the two independent states – the Czech and the Slovak Republic – brought wide-ranging changes in perceiving of identity of the inhabitants of these states. The division of the former Czechoslovakia established new borders, which, nevertheless, did not have any strong effects neither on the migratory movements between the newly founded states, nor on the perceiving of the group identity of some of the Roma/Gypsy groups in respective countries. The EU integration process in the last years brought about new opportunities – movements of people, job opportunities and more intensive labour migrations. We would like to discuss the problem of identity of a Roma/Gypsy group studied and the effect that the social and political changes that have appeared in the last 20 years had on their perceiving of who they are. The core of our investigation concerns the questions of identity (local identity, kinship identity, state identity, European identity or a trans-national Roma identity?). We will discuss interrelationships between various strata of identities and the extent to which these relationships are influenced by the contemporary processes of EU integration.