The intention of this article is to analyze the state of research about the peasants and the nation upon the example of the most relevant publications from the last decade. At the same time, the article indicates three prime problems faced by the researchers: the connection of theory and empirical quantities, the formulation of good definitions (conceptualization), and suitable explanations. First and foremost, it was proved that the process of joining theory and empirical quantities has not been resolved properly; at the same time, emphasis has been placed on valuable exceptions (Mędrzecki, Olszewski, Bończa-Tomaszewski). Second, similarly critical assessments relate to definitions created in the analysed works. Even the most sophisticated proposal, i.e. the one made by Struve (subjective identification, objective national identity), is still insufficient to reflect the complicated nature of national phenomena, since it does not take into consideration the national discourse. Third, against this background the explanation of national processes appears to be even more complicated. True, researchers have created numerous interesting descriptive typologies (Kieniewicz, Mędrzecki), but such difficult problems as linking objective and subjective factors, micro- and macro-analyses and diachronic and synchronic dimensions still have to be resolved; the same holds true for the construction of a complete explanation that would encompass the social context and relations between social subjects and cognitive processes. Each of the discussed publications proposes its own solution of these problems, but does not elucidate all in a satisfactory manner.