The aim of the article is to indicate areas as well as the scope of professionalization of HRM in small and medium enterprises. The reason behind the undertaking of this problem may be found in the results of research conducted on SMEs that show that the owners or managing directors of such companies tend to focus on main business areas, paying less attention to other functions deemed “supporting.” One of them is the personnel function. This is in spite of the fact that professional literature considers human capital a very significant factor in the organization. Thus, the quality of HRM processes in such entities continues to be low. In its first part, the article defines the concept of HRM professionalization and indicates the main ways used in its measurement and assessment. The successive part discusses the primary areas of HRM professionalization, taking into account the specifics of SMEs. The last part is devoted to presenting and discussing the results of empirical research relating to the level of professionalization in training activities in SMEs. The analyses conducted include all the stages of the training process, where the statistical exemplification of the data constitutes a basis for the formulation of final conclusions.