„Problem teologiczno-polityczny” w konfrontacji meksykańskiego liberalizmu i katolickiego konserwatyzmu
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THE “THEOLOGICAL-POLITICAL PROBLEM” IN THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN MEXICAN LIBERALISM AND CATHOLIC CONSERVATISM
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The article is an antinomy between the conflicting worldviews of the ideology of liberalism, on the one hand, which is characterized by Jacobinism and aggressive anti-religiousness, and on the other, Catholic conservatism. This armed confrontation became a fundamental part of the social and political history of independent Mexico, especially since the time of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917). The victorious liberals, using the whole strength of the administrative, educational and military apparatus of the state, took action that was directly and openly aimed at the institutional destruction of the Catholic Church. The first part of the article presents the next phase of the liberal revolution, which began with actions that were designed to secularize the Mexican state, which culminated in the establishment of an indifferent constitution from 1857, which limited the freedom of the Church with regard to the significant constitutional laws, known as the Laws of Reform, through the proclamation of the ideological secularism of the state and teaching, as well as the formal-legal liquidation of the Church as a corporate body based on the 1917 Constitution, to the constitutionalisation (in 1934) of the so-called socialist education, which is atheistic and anti-religious at all levels in education. The second part of the article presents the views and aspirations of the Catholic counter-revolution, from the nineteenth-century royalists and the Conservative Party, through Catholic social, inspirational teaching of the Pope Leo XIII and Pius XI, the armed rising known as cristeros against the tyranny of Calles, after the national-Catholic synarchistic movement. It presents both these ideological phenomena which leads to the conclusion that the ‘theological-political problem’ in the Mexican context manifested itself as a ‘fight to the death’ of two nations: ‘the liberal-indigenous nation’ and the ‘Hispanic-Catholic nation” as well as two religions: “the political religion’, which is a mixture of liberalism, positivism, Freemasons, and artificially revived pre-Columbian myths, as well as a revelatory and dogmatic Catholic religion.
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