An evaluation culture in the EU Cohesion Policy is developing. It applies a more rigorous approach than few years ago. Although the European Commission is introducing a requirement for impact evaluations, such evaluations are still rare. An employment is one of the core objectives of EU policies. Application of the counterfactual impact evaluation on the EU Cohesion Policy enables the inquiry into how one of the most important EU policies operates. The analysis comprises a sample of 373 supported and 202 rejected applicants. The appraisal experts´ approach to applications is used as an instrumental variable to estimate the impacts of the assistance from the European Social Fund in Czech companies through interventions aimed at training of employees. The results indicate positive effects of the European Social Fund’s assistance in companies even one year after the support ended. The estimates vary between 3 838 and 5 513 created or saved jobs.