2011 | 62 | 83-118
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Cmentarzysko kultury przeworskiej w miejscowości Całowanie, gm. Karczew, woj. Mazowieckie, st. XXVI

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The village Całowanie lies in the valley of the Vistula R., on its right bank, c. 7.5 km to the north-east of the locality Góra Kalwaria, on a sandy upper terrace parallel to the river channel, separated from the west from the main current of the Vistula. Near the site of interest the upper terrace is dissected by a small stream (called Szeroka Struga) parallel to it, the main axis of prehistoric settlement in the area. One of the earliest finds from the Late Pre-Roman Period discovered close to Całowanie is an iron type M fibula, now in the museum in Bydgoszcz, dated within phases A2/A3 and A3. A series of finds datable to the same period was discovered by accident in 1948 on a small elevation rising over the Szeroka Struga stream, c. 750 m to the north-west of the village buildings of Całowanie. Chronological variation of the pottery and observable division in the grave pit suggest that originally there were two features, one (southern – dating from phase A3, which next to pottery contained a fragment of an undetermined fibula), partly damaged by the grave pit of a later burial (the northern – from phase B1, which also yielded an iron knife and rivet). The graves would have belonged to a larger as yet not investigated cemetery of Przeworsk Culture. Finds from Całowanie datable to the Early Roman Period also include two glass beads, classified as type 223b and 4b of M. Tempelmann-Mączyńska – were submitted in 1903 to the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw by Z. Wolski (now in the State Archaeological Museum, PMA/IV/568). The latest artefact from Całowanie dated reliably to the Roman Period, a bronze tendril crossbow fibula, type A.162, dated to phase C2, was discovered in a dune next to the road linking Łukowiec and Całowanie (PMA/IV/568) and is linked with Wielbark Culture settlement. Nevertheless, all these finds do not belong to the cemetery under discussion. The finds from the Late Pre-Roman and the Roman Period are rounded out by input from the cemetery of Przeworsk Culture recorded as Całowanie site XXVI, subject of the present contribution. It lies on a small elevation descending to the valley of the Szeroka Struga stream. On its east side the site was destroyed by a dirt road running to Całowanie and by buildings of the village. The cemetery was discovered during a fieldwalking survey made in 1987 (AZP 61-69/59) and came under rescue excavation in July 1990. A total area of no more than 200 m2 was explored and 19 graves of Przeworsk Culture were identified. All the features excavated were seriously damaged by deep ploughing. Grave 1 was notable because next to pottery it contained fragments of two iron spear points (one of them decorated on the blade by notching), a shield-boss, type Bo.15, a fibula, type E acc. to Kostrzewski, and a knife. This would be a striking case of the lingering in use of a fibula form characteristic for phase A2 discovered with weapons and ceramics distinctive for the mature phase A3. At the same time, the fibula would be an interesting evidence on outside contacts, both within the Przeworsk Culture and beyond, given that this fibula form is known mainly from Lower Silesia and from the Vistula Delta. Contacts with the area of Celtic settlement is documented by forms present in graves 3 and 9 – a fragment of a cup made to imitate Celtic comb-decorated pottery in the first of these grave and fragments of a segmented belt, a form also deriving from the Celtic environment. Also attributable to the same sphere is a fragment of a Knotenring ornament, discovered in the cemetery at Całowanie as a stray find. Even so, the main group useful in dating the cemetery was pottery. A closer analysis of vessel forms and their dating helped to separate three groups of graves corresponding to different phases of use of the cemetery. To better grasp the links between individual forms a table of co-occurrence of specific ceramic forms in closed grave assemblages was developed. Group I includes graves 6, 10, 15, and 19. They mostly contained vessels with thickened and visibly facetted rims, types I.1.1.b, II.2.b, IV.1.b and III.5. There was also a handful of forms with less prominently facetted rims, types I.1.1.c, I.2.c and IV.1.c, characteristic for the next phase. This group of graves was marked by a co-occurrence of vessels typical for ceramic phases I and II in Przeworsk culture, which helped to synchronize them with phase A2/A3. Group II includes graves 1, 3 and 18. They contained no vessels other than forms with a thickened randomly facetted rim and a broad upper body. Leading forms in this group are type II.2.c. bowls and cups of type I.1.1.c, I.2.c and I.4.1 mentioned earlier. Novel forms included a few bowls of type B.1.1. Based on typological attributes of the pottery and non-ceramic finds from grave 1, typical for the late phase of the Late Pre-Roman Period (the type Bo.15 shield-boss and the spear point with a blade decorated by notching) graves in this group may be synchronized with phase A3. Group II includes graves 11 and 17. Vessels discovered in them have a sharply angular body and an everted rim. These are vases type A.3 and bowls type A.1 and B.1.1. Also classifiable to group III is grave 13 which yielded a bowl, type B.1.1, somewhat degenerated of form. Vessels type A.1 and A.3 are noted in the eastern area of the Przeworsk culture during the Early Roman Period and are a characteristic form during this period. Their presence in Group III graves helps synchronize the group with phase B1 and possibly, the onset of phase B2. Analysis helps to establish the relative dating of the cemetery at Całowanie site XXVI as phases A2/A3–B1. Despite the relatively modest quantity of archaeological material the results presented here document a rhythm of development similar as in other Przeworsk cemeteries in the Mazowsze region. There is also evidence of the lingering of vessel forms assigned to ceramic phase II as well as some delay in the adoption of Early Roman models. The finds from Całowanie also document outside exchange of this part of Przeworsk Culture and change in its culture connections attributable to the depopulation of areas in Lower Silesia and northwestern Wielkopolska.
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  • Państwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne, ul. Długa 52, PL 00-241 Warszawa, POLAND,
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