ITALSKÝ WESTERN JAKO ZDROJ IKONOGRAFICKÉ, SPEKTAKULÁRNÍ A ŽÁNROVÉ REVITALIZACE. INTERTEXTOVÉ ODKAZY, CITACE A PARAFRÁZE VE WESTERNECH QUENTINA TARANTINA
Italian western as a source of iconographic, spectacular and genre revitalization. Intertextual references, citations and paraphrases in westerns by Quentin Tarantino
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This study deals with the intertextual references, citations and paraphrases of Italian popular genre western all'italiana (western in the Italian style) in American westerns by Quentin Tarantino. Main emphasis is placed on thematic, narrative, stylistic and mainly on iconographic, socio-cultural and musical contexts between two Tarantino's movies Django Unchained (2012) and The Hateful Eight (2015) and westerns of some Italian directors that filmmaker reflects in his no-western movies yet. Citation level is analysed on example of general characteristics of Italian western and on example of work by some directors (for example Sergio Corbucci, Sergio Sollima, Giulio Petroni, Tonino Valerii, Duccio Tessari and others), from whose movies Tarantino takes and modifies selected scenes, shots, situations and replicas of characters. The study follows the process of revitalization of genre, iconographic, socio-cultural, spectacular and musical elements in Tarantino's westerns that represent a cinematic tribute to Italian westerns and their directors. The text examines also international phenomenon and cult status of character Django in the context of Corbucci's original movie and movies of other filmmakers. This study explores also archival songs and music themes from Italian westerns used by Tarantino in his movies and his first collaboration with composer Ennio Morricone on original music for his last western. On the basis of this collaboration Tarantino changed stylistic level of using styles, genres and trends of archive music of 60's and 70's. Similarly also Morricone composed for western new and atypical score that is very different from his music for Italian westerns in period of 60's and 70's.
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