This paper approaches the issue of disability in the 50s and 60s in Poland. There are two main objectives of the article. Firstly, the author examines the so called individual (medical) model of disability as way of understanding and conceptualizing disability in 20th century. He points out its main features, assumptions and argues that this model was a basis for Polish state politics towards the disabled in the post-war period. Secondly, he focuses on the rehabilitation, especially medical rehabilitation treated as the main manifestation of individual model of disability. The paper approaches the reality of rehabilitation in the 50s and 60s in Poland presenting the case of the rehabilitation of polio survivors.