Against the background of various linguistic and non-linguistic fields of study, we present an initial definition of the concept of language management as an activity focused on any aspect of language or communication or on language or communication as a whole. We explain the position of Language Management Theory (LMT) as a sociolinguistic theory in relation to varying paradigms of language policy and planning. In this context, the theory’s historical origins, which extend back to the collaborative work of J. V. Neustupný and B. H. Jernudd beginning in the 1960s, are elucidated. We summarize the reflection, categorization, and integration of LMT by other authors (R. Baldauf, B. Spolsky, M. Mwaniki and others), and also present critical views of these authors’ work. We then outline the main aspects of LMT: typical contexts in which language is managed, the relationship between simple and organized management, the connection of language, communicative and sociocultural management, and the processual character of management. Finally, we briefly describe the articles contained in the issue, all of which address Central European language problems and at the same time offer considerable theoretical and methodological innovations.