The study deals with a phenomenon of primitivism in fine art of the first three decades of 20th century in Europe and Slovakia. The Slovak after-war fine art stylistically stemmed from two remarkable centres – from Budapest academic environment and from Prague cultural environment. On the basis of examining contemporary documents, the paper therefore proves Hungarian and Czech intellectual environment served the ideas of primitivism into Slovak fine art practice and science. The paper is based on the knowledge, that primitivism is a dynamic phenomenon and artistic expressions of primitivism come into Slovakia only it is second development stage – in 1920’s. This fact significantly influenced character of fine art modernity in Kosice and folk-oriented modernity of Prague school.