The article is concerned with the situation of Slovak literary translation in the period of 1945 – 1989. It maps its development through four historical determining factors of the Slovak cultural and translation space: geopolitical situation, language situation, political gesture and the confessional phenomenon. This is the background of the mutually related and interacting, historically determined trajectories territorial eccentricity → territorial integrity, exo identity → endo identity, heterolingualism → monolingualism, fragmentariness → integrality and relativity of signification → absolute meaning. The text focuses on the linguistic situation and the political gesture in the context of Lotman’s concept of culture and historicity, and on the value aspect, which is considered from the point of view of the role of literary translation in the cultural system in relation to the cultural code. The value of translation is understood as a renewal of the cultural code through disruption, and on textual level as conceptual renewal of meaning in relation to the poetic and ethical consensus with the original, while emphasis is put on the creativity of translation.