There was a period of radical changes in the countries of Central, South-eastern and Eastern Europe at the end of World War II and subsequent years. In Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania, thanks to the active support of Soviet Union, the local communist parties came to power and secured complete control in all spheres of public life. Social and economic changes were carried out in all areas of life; these affected the entire population and only a relatively small part were focused on Gypsies exclusively, who were a specific target of active government policy in individual countries during the different periods. Despite the fact that a common ideology united the ‘socialist camp’, the policies focused on Gypsies were not identical. Differences appeared, based on models from the past and on the specific national strategies of the individual states. The present article is an attempt to offer a new view, freed from superimposed ideology, of state policies focused on Gypsies in the countries of Central, South-eastern and Eastern Europe during the period of communist rule. Particular attention is given to the policies in the areas of sedentarisation, residence, development and retention of ethnic culture, and opportunities for organisational life. In conclusion, the study presents a provisional evaluation of the politics of the so-called socialist states from the aspect of the successful integration of Gypsies into society.