The traditional geopolitical idea of a union between Russia and Heartland does not conform to historical facts. If we conceive of the geopolitical axes as interconnections between the centres of power, we can identify three to five such axes: (a) towards Constantinople; (b) across the Baltic region and the Polish-German lowlands; (c) along the Black Sea; (d) towards Persia and the Golden Horde; (e) the Far East Axis. As a result, however, the core of the Russian statehood is not situated to the east of the Urals but rather to the west of the latter, i.e., on the East European plane. Fluctuation in the meaning and significance of these axes attributes the central role either to Kiev or to Moscow. This also helps to understand the unique role of Novgorod not only as a power centre but also as an alternative solution to the unification and arrangement of Russia.