Edouard Manet began his professional career with works reflecting bohemian street life in Paris and music. The most intriguing of these feature “Gypsy” subjects. The artist drew upon prevailing discourses about Gypsies and in particular he was responding to a book by Franz Liszt Des Bohemiens et de leur musique en Hongrie which was published in Paris in 1859. A number of Manet’s innovations take their cue from the Gypsy’s revolutionary approach to music-making described in that book. Through the evocation of sound, music and other non-visual experiences he was pointing the way to a redefinition of art’s referential function.