This article reviews the adaptation process of people of Polish origin repatriated from the former Soviet Union. In the beginning the author introduces a legal and sociopolitical background of repatriation, as well as the social adaptation process. Next, this process is analysed in the light of empirical data obtained on the basis of two nationwide studies conducted among repatriates by the Institute of Social Policy, University of Warsaw. The main focus is placed on their first impressions upon arrival, however the main obstacles and assessment of their repatriation are also discussed. The summary contains a typology of immigrant groups against the background of their social adaptation.