In proposed study the author deals with the natural environment and the structure of settlements in the area of upper basin of river Žitava. Geographical informational systems (GIS) and statistic methods have greatly contributed to the study of landscape and settlements. Utilization of GIS in analyses lies in the graphic representation of an individual indicator on separate layers, which are being overlapped and combined. The time frame, analysed in this paper, includes the Neolithic period up to the early historic age and it indicates also on the development during the early Middle Age. The analysis is focused on the spatial context, landscape properties at the site of settlements, relations with surrounding environment and on the settlement structure. The objective was to review the settlements variability in individual periods of time according to the measured values, to evaluate the settlement in relation to the natural environment and landscape and the settlement structure within separate periods of time.