PL EN


2017 | 323 | 75-89
Article title

European migration crisis as an outcome of globalization

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Europejski kryzys migracyjny jako wynik globalizacji
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Recently the European Union has accepted quite a large number of refugees. The aim of the paper is to analyze if globalization might have contributed to such a dramatic increase in flow of migrants (or, is it the only reason?). The strongest barrier of migration – incomplete information – has been overcome by free access to the Internet and mobile communications. This article looks at migration in 195 countries over the period from 2000 till 2015. It was found that indicators of high living standards in host countries or extreme life conditions in source countries do not affect the flow of migrants. The results support the hypothesis that better access to information is positively linked to the growth of migrants over the world.
PL
Niedawno Unia Europejska przyjęła dość dużą liczbę uchodźców. Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, czy globalizacja mogła przyczynić się do tak dramatycznego wzrostu przepływu migrantów (albo czy to jedyny powód?). Najmocniejsza bariera migracji – niekompletne informacje – została przezwyciężona przez swobodny dostęp do Internetu i komunikacji mobilnej. W niniejszym artykule omówiono migrację w 195 krajach w okresie od 2000 do 2015 r. Stwierdzono, że wskaźniki wysokiego poziomu życia w krajach przyjmujących lub ekstremalne warunki życia w krajach pochodzenia nie wpływają na przepływ migrantów. Wyniki potwierdzają hipotezę, że lepszy dostęp do informacji ma pozytywną korelacją ze wzrostem migracji na całym świecie.
Year
Volume
323
Pages
75-89
Physical description
Contributors
author
  • National Research University Higher School of Economics. Department of Applied Economics
References
  • Anam M., Chiang S.H., Hua L. (2005), Uncertainty and International Migration: An Option cum Portfolio Model, “Journal of Labor Resources”, Vol. 29 (3), pp. 236-250.
  • BBC (2016), Migrant Crisis: Migration to Europe Explained in Seven Charts, 4 March, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34131911 (accessed: 10.03.2016).
  • Becker G. (1975), Human Capital, 2nd ed., University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Berninghaus S., Seifert-Vogt H.G. (1991), International Migration under Incomplete Information: A Microeconomic Approach, Springer, Berlin.
  • Bodvarsson Ö.B., Van den Berg H. (2013), The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy, Springer Science+Business Media, New York, Chapter 2. The Determinants of International Migration: Theory.
  • Borjas G. (1987), Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants, “American Economic Review”, Vol. 77, pp. 531-553.
  • Borjas G. (1991), Immigration and Self-Selection [in:] J. Abowd, R. Freeman (eds.), Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 29-76.
  • Borjas G.J. (1994), The Economics of Immigration, “Journal of Economic Literature”, Vol. 32(4), pp. 1667-1717.
  • Burda M. (1993), The Determinants of East-West German Migration, “European Economic Review”, Vol. 37, pp. 452-461.
  • Burda M. (1995), Migration and the Option Value of Waiting, “The Economic and Social Review”, Vol. 27, pp. 1-19.
  • Dekker R., Engbersen G. (2014), How Social Media Transform Migrant Networks and Facilitate Migration, “Global Networks”, Vol. 14(4), pp. 401-418.
  • DiMaggio P., Hargittai R., Celeste C., Shafer S. (2004), Digital Inequality: From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use [in:] K.M. Neckerman (ed.), Social Inequality, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 355-400.
  • Diminescu D. (2008), The Connected Migrant: An Epistemological Manifesto, “Social Science Information”, Vol. 47(4), pp. 565-579.
  • Harris J., Todaro M. (1970), Migration, Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis, “American Economic Review”, Vol. 60, pp. 126-142.
  • Heitmueller A. (2005), Unemployment Benefits, Risk Aversion, and Migration Incentives, “Journal of Population Economics”, Vol. 18(1), pp. 93-112.
  • Hiller H.H., Franz T.M. (2004), New Ties, Old Ties and Lost Ties: The Use of the Internet in Diaspora, “New Media & Society”, Vol. 6(6), pp. 731-752.
  • Horst H.A. (2006), The Blessings and Burdens of Communication: Cell Phones in Jamaican Transnational Social Fields, “Global Networks”, Vol. 6(2), pp. 143-159.
  • Hugo G. (1981), Village-Community Ties, Village Norms, and Ethnic and Social Networks: A Review of Evidence from the Third World [in:] G. DeJong, R. Gardner (eds.), Migration Decision Making: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed and Developing Countries, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 186-224.
  • Katz E., Stark O. (1986), Labor Migration and Risk Aversion in Less-Developed Countries, “Journal of Labor Economics”, Vol. 4, pp. 131-149.
  • Komito L. (2011), Social Media and Migration: Virtual Community 2.0., “Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology”, Vol. 62(6), pp. 1075-1086.
  • Lundborg P. (1991), An Interpretation of the Effects of Age on Migration: Nordic Migrants’ Choice of Settlement in Sweden, “Southern Economic Journal”, Vol. 58, pp. 392-405.
  • MacDonald J.S., MacDonald L.D. (1964), Chain Migration, Ethnic Neighborhood Formation and Social Networks, “The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly”, Vol. 42(1), pp. 82-97.
  • Mahler S.J. (2001), Transnational Relationships: The Struggle to Communicate across Borders, “Identities”, Vol. 7(4), pp. 583-619.
  • Massey R., Garcia Espana F. (1987), The Social Process of International Migration, “Science”, Vol. 237, pp. 733-738.
  • MPI (2016), Asylum Applications in the EU/EFTA by Country, 2008-2015, http://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/asylum-applicationseuefta-country-2008-2015 (accessed: 10.03.2016).
  • Parham A.A. (2004), Diaspora, Community and Communication: Internet Use in Transnational Haiti, “Global Networks”, Vol. 4(2), pp. 199-217.
  • Ravenstein E. (1889), The Laws of Migration, “Journal of the Royal Statistical Society”, Vol. 52, pp. 241-305.
  • Ros A. (2010), Interconnected Immigrants in the Information Society’ [in:] A. Alonso, P.J. Oiarzabal (eds.), Diasporas in the New Media Age. Identity, Politics and Community, University of Nevada Press, Reno, pp. 19-38.
  • Rosen S. (1974), Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition, “Journal of Political Economy”, Vol. 82, pp. 34-55.
  • Runciman W. (1996), Relative Deprivation and Social Justice, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
  • Sandler T., Hartley K. (2001), Economics of Alliances: The Lessons for Collective Action, “Journal of Economic Literature”, Vol. 39, pp. 869-896.
  • Sjaastad L. (1962), The Costs and Returns of Human Migration, “Journal of Political Economy”, Vol. 70, pp. 80-93.
  • Spolaore E. (2013), What is European Integration Really About? A Political Guide for Economists, “Journal of Economic Perspectives”, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 125-144.
  • Stark O. (2013), Stressful Integration, “European Economic Review”, Vol. 63, pp. 1-9.
  • Stark O., Levhari D. (1982), On Migration and Risk in LDCs, “Economic Development and Cultural Change”, Vol. 31, pp. 191-196.
  • Taylor J. (1986), Differential Migration, Networks, Information and Risk [in:] O. Stark (ed.), Research in Human Capital and Development: RHCD, An Annual Research. Emerald, Bingley, pp. 147-171.
  • Tiebout C. (1956), A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures, “Journal of Political Economy”, Vol. 64, pp. 416-425.
  • Tilly C. (1990), Transplanted Networks [in:] V. Yans-MacLoughlin (ed.), Immigration Reconsidered, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 79-95.
  • Todaro M. (1969), A Model of Labour Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries, “American Economic Review”, Vol. 59, pp. 138-148.
  • United Nations (2015), Trends in International Migrant Stock: Migrants by Destination and Origin, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015.
  • Vertovec S. (2004), Cheap Calls: The Social Glue of Migrant Transnationalism, “Global Networks”, Vol. 4(2), pp. 216-224.
  • Williams A.M., Baláž V. (2012), Migration, Risk and Uncertainty: Theoretical Perspectives, “Population, Space and Place”, Vol. 18(2), pp. 167-180.
  • Yitzhaki S. (1979), Relative Deprivation and the Gini Coefficient, “Quarterly Journal of Economics”, Vol. 93, pp. 321-324.
  • [www 1] http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2?name_desc=false&page=2 (accessed: 28.02.2016).
  • [www 2] http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.REFG/countries (accessed: 28.02.2016).
  • [www 3] http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI (accessed: 28.02.2016).
  • [www 4] http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/income-gini-coefficient (accessed: 28.02.2016).
  • [www 5] http://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/international-migrationstatistics (accessed: 28.02.2016).
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
2083-8611
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.cejsh-4e8c923b-40c2-4dc9-8c35-0a49c9deeab3
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.