The article discusses the current risks of a limited nuclear war and its consequences for humanity. It presents a critical analysis of the difference between the strategy of global destructive warfare as a result of the classical use of standard nuclear weapons on the one hand and the new political-military plan of a limited, small-scale nuclear war (without global expansion) on the other. The paper clarifies the problems associated with the new US strategy documents that are advancing a line of argument in favour of a in the context of conflicts of political, corporate and military-technical interests in the global capitalism. It also analyses the background to the current state, i.e. the history of strategies of the possible nuclear war and potential actors of this kind of threat. It draws attention to the current real danger of locally waged limited nuclear warfare and its possible escalation on a global scale.