Zázračná vyslyšení z Jeníkova a Kostomlat pod Milešovkou – dvou barokních zapomenutých mariánských poutních míst severních Čech
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MIRACULOUS HEALINGS FROM JENÍKOV AND KOSTOMLATY POD MILEŠOVKOU – TWO FORGOTTEN MARIAN PILGRIMAGE SITES OF NORTH BOHEMIA
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The essay introduces two almost forgotten north Bohemian Baroque pilgri-mage sites newly rising in the vicinity of significant Marian pilgrimage sites with deeper tradition in the foothills of the Ore Mountains (i.e. Bohosudov, Mariánské Radčice, Horní Jiřetín) – Jeníkov (Janegg) and Kostomlaty pod Milešovkou (Kosten-blatt). At St. Peter and Paul’s Church in Jeníkov (an incorporated parish of Osek Cistercian monastery), a Marian cult developed in the early 17th century around the sculpture of the Our Lady Grievous (Panna Marie Bolestná), created by the sculptor M. Wildt of Osek, who was probably assisted by P. B. Mibs. The preserved manu-script of miraculous healings contains 764 cures intervened by the Our Lady of Jení-kov, which occurred between 1701 and 1762 and culminated in 1722 (143 healings). Most cases involve fever and other illnesses, various injuries (including relatively banal wounds); fulfilment of other pleads is only marginal. The social status of the persons involved is recorded only in a small number of testimonies; information on votive gifts is also sparse. Although it never reached official acknowledgement, the cult of the Our Lady of Jeníkov reached a form comparable with “Marian obsession” as it was described by Augustine Sartorius from the nearby official pilgrimage site of Osek Cistercians in Mariánské Radčice. It also gained an extensive territorial expansion; although the concentration of healings was the strongest within the perimeter of approximately fifteen kilometres from Jeníkov, it reached as far as the boundary between the Žatec and Chomutov regions, Ústí and Labem and Děčín and some sporadic healings in Hungary, Prague and Dresden. The number of healings sharply dropped in the 1740’s. The last entry in the unfinished book was made in 1762. There is no clear explanation for this decline due to the lack of archive materials (raids of Prussian armies, fire of the original church in 1756 and construction of a new, still existing church, competition coming from numerous official pilgrimage sites in the near vicinity), because there is no other material covering this topic besides this book. The remains of the cult were recorded in the local tradition by G. A. Wahner in the first half of the 19th century. He also preserved the sole remaining illustration of the long extinct revered sculpture of 1733. The Jeníkov book of mira-culous healings presents a unique material of its kind for the 18th century. 76 The pilgrimage site of the Our Lady Auxiliary (Panna Marie Pomocná) near the spa spring in Kostomlaty on the north-west foot of the Central Mountains originated in 1730’s together with the construction of an extensive pilgrimage chapel, which was consecrated in 1750 in commemoration of the Our Lady’s Ascension Day. A manuscript by P. J. Hian dated the early 1770’s, that was dedicated to the new owner of the Kostomlaty estate, gives a rather distorted account on the origins of the pilgrimage site and describes fourteen miraculous healings of people of all social statuses from Kostomlaty, neighbouring villages, the towns of Bílina, Teplice and Most. During Josephinism, the Kostomlaty chapel was officially closed, but the Marian cult, together with the local spa spring, was regenerated in the 19th century in the form of a minor Classicist central chapel built around the ruins of the 18th century chapel. To the early 20th century, Kostomlaty served as a destination of nume-rous pilgrimages from locations as far as 30 kilometres away, but the extent of the cult covered a somewhat smaller territory than that of Jeníkov. It was concentrated on the Křemýž-Milešov estate of the Lederbours and in Bílina-Libčeves of the Lobko-wicz family; later, in the second half of the 19th century, it spread to Bohosudov and more distant villages in the Ore Mountains. Miraculous healings come from this period, too (e.g. eye diseases). Their number does not exceed dozens of cases. Although they only represent a fraction of Jeníkov’s occurrences, they still offer an interesting material for study of people’s piety due to their greater time span.
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