О социально-культурном факторе функциональной семантики: проблемы речевой номинации
On the Socio-cultural Factor of Functional Semantics: the Problem of Sofspeech Nomination
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The author presents an overview of some linguistic trends and disciplines in the XXth century contributed to the systematic study of the effects of social, cultural and communication environment on language system and linguistic activity: functional and generative semantics, critical linguistics, functional syntax, interactive grammar, sociolinguistics and ethnolinguistics. The author pays particular attention to the contribution of Russian scientists, such as V. Voloshinov, A. F. Losev, V. A. Zveigincev and others. The four parameters of the semantic system of language are examined, which show the influence of pragmatic factors on the formation and functioning of the meaning of language units: the internal form of words, connotation, secondary nomination (metaphor, metonymy), the structure of semantics fields. In addition, the author demonstrates three principles of the nomination in the language behavior: the principle of the nearest relations, the principle of empathy nad the principle of differentiation.
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