Jan III Sobieski i jego wpływ na odrodzenie staropolskiej sztuki wojennej w II połowie XVII wieku
JAN III SOBIESKI AND HIS INFLUENCE ON THE REVIVAL OF THE OLD POLISH MILITARY ART IN THE 2ND HALF OF THE 17TH CENTURY
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This article contains an abbreviated biography of John III Sobieski (1629-1674), Lord Standard-Bearer of the Crown, Grand Marshal of the Crown, Field Hetman and Grand Crown Hetman, King of Poland. The author first presents the period during which Sobieski gathered military education that he could later use as a commander in the battlefield. He presents Sobieski in the context of the times in which he lived to show the military skills of an extraordinary Polish commander and a connoisseur of the Old Polish military art. The author devotes much space to the use the highly maneuverable cavalry by Sobieski who used it to disintegrate the backups of the opposing army or to severe the lines of communication. The author also notes Sobieski’s communication skills when talking to the nobility at that time, which helped reduce the costs of conducting the war. By contrast, the author shows the defeats of Sobieski and their impact on the society’s attitude towards the leader. The author provides an overview of Sobieski’s achievements and defeats based on the individual campaigns and battles in which he fought. He also analyzes the changes that took place in the structure of the Crown’s army in Sobieski’s times, including the hussars, harquebusiers, light cavalry, and foreign infantry regiments. The article is a summary of the opinions of the Polish historiographers on Sobieski’s achievements who basically agree that Sobieski went into history as a brilliant commander, the one who defeated the Turks at the battle of Chocim and at the Battle of Vienna, as well as the man who helped to revive the Old Polish war art in the 17th century.
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