HETERO- AND AUTO-STEREOTYPES OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN SLOVAKIA
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In this article we will concentrate our attention on auto- and hetero-stereotypes of members of five traditional ethnic minorities living in Slovakia: Hungarian, Czech, Roma, Ruthenian, and Ukrainian. Through intergroup stereotyping we understand standardized and simplified images and beliefs of individual members or groups as a whole. Stereotypes usually correspond to a holder’s beliefs and social objects; in the case of intergroup stereotypes these are typically personality characteristics. Data was collected in the second half of 2017 in all regions of Slovakia. The total quota sample in our research consists of 972 adult respondents: 165 Hungarians, 160 Roma, 165 Czechs, 160 Ruthenians, 160 Ukrainians, and 162 Slovaks. The obtained results reflect clearly the positive reciprocal effect in the Warmth hetero-stereotypes dimension for the most ethnic group dyads. This is especially visible in the case of Slovaks-Czechs, and Ruthenians-Ukrainians bonds, but also is present in mutual relations between all ethnic group members except for Roma. The competence dimension reproduces the picture described above, but ties between the mentioned closest dyads are slightly weaker and hetero-stereotypes to the Roma moved slightly more to the negative pole. Figures in the Data connected with auto-stereotypes of all groups reflect the known fact about their favourableness in comparison with hetero-stereotypes. Hetero-stereotypes of respondents to 5 target groups (4 minority ethnic groups - Hungarians, Ruthenians, Ukrainians, Czechs and for comparison Slovaks representing the majority) expressed to an important extent patterns of similarity, locating all 6 compared groups of respondents (including Roma) into the positive quadrant of the Stereotype Content Model represented by high warmth and high competence. This result supports the picture described in previous analyses (Homišinová, Výrost, 2005; Výrost, 2005) and confirms the stability of mutual perceptions. The situation with hetero-stereotypes to the Roma target ethnic group is visibly different; its location to low-low quadrant in both the dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model is univocal. These results fill in the picture of social status and conditions of living of the Roma population in general (Europe) and in Slovakia.
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