NÁLEZY ZO STARŠEJ A ZAČIATKU STREDNEJ DOBY BRONZOVEJ Z PONITRIANSKEJ GALÉRIE V NITRE
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Finds from the Early Bronze Age and the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age from Nitra - Ponitrianska gallery
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The article treats finds from the Early Bronze Age and the beginning of the middle Bronze which were obtained in the rescue archaeological excavation at the foot of the Nitra castle hill, in the area of Nitra Gallery (Ponitrianska galéria). In prehistoric times, the settlement was most intensive in the Early Bronze Age, when a fortified settlement of the Maďarovce culture was raised on the whole area of 8 ha. The analysed material comes from rescue excavations in years 1996 and 1997. The dating of finds and situations is done on the basis of pottery fragments, which come from the standard pottery of the Maďarovce culture. A large part of the pottery can only generally be dated to the Early Bronze Age or to the period of the Maďarovce culture. The identifiable part of the pottery dates the settlement on the castle hill as early as the Únětice-Maďarovce horizon. To the most remarkable finds of this excavation of the settlement of Maďarovce culture belongs to the double grave situated on the bottom of the settlement pit. A comprehensive view of horse finds in the milieu of the Maďarovce culture or the Maďarovce-Věteřov-Böheimkirchen cultural circle does not exist yet. In our case the object could be interpreted as a human sacrifice. The ditch, which was partly unearthed in the rescue excavation on the area of the gallery, is probably related to the fortified entrance to the settlement area on the castle hill. The division of the castle area is clearest in case of the settlement and grave finds from the Early Bronze Age and the beginning of the middle Bronze Age. They were found during the rescue excavations under the castle hill. The several of the newly published objects from this area are related to handicrafts. A part of the characteristic finds indicates activities in the post-classical phase of the Maďarovce and subsequent Tumulus culture. We assume that this area was divided from the area of the castle hill by the natural water course of Nitrička, and not by an artificial water ditch. At first, a more detailed publication of material will be able to throw light on the development and on both the inner and functional structure of this more than 40 settlement area.
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