Edukacja permanentna w perspektywie historycznej – Antoniego Popławskiego plan nauczania i wychowania dzieci chłopskich
PERMANENT EDUCATON IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. ANTONI POPŁAWSKI’S PROGRAMME OF TEACHING AND EDUCATING PEASANT CHILDREN
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The subject-matter of the article is Antoni Popławski’s competition work, an answer to the question posed in 1770 by Bishop Massalski, concerning the teaching that should be offered to “peasants”, and in particular to children in village elementary schools. Both Massalski and Popławski were under the ideological influence of the French philosophers and economists (physiocrats) from Dr Quesnay’s physiocratic school. According to them, one of the conditions for the development of agriculture bringing ‘pure profit’, was a liberal, free market economy and the appropriate level of farmers’ education. It concerned not only land owners but also common ploughmen, including hired workmen. Popławski put forward the idea of creating parish schools headed by the parish priest, a vicar or a hired teacher. The curriculum was to include such skills as reading, writing, arithmetic, Christian education, agriculture and medical self-aid. In his work, the author advocates slackening the ties of serfdom of Polish peasants, at the same time persuading the noblemen that reforms of this kind and educating the lower classes of people were their economic interest. In his treaty Popławski turned out to be known as a future talented writer and pedagogue of the Commission of National Education.
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