The paper presents the situation of the agricultural sector in the Vietnamese economy during the period of system transformation from orthodox socialism to bureaucratic capitalism. The initial impulse to reform the country's economy came from agriculture. It required changes in collective farms, then followed a rethinking in other areas of economy and in running legal ideas. The transition of the system is clearly reflected in agricultural reforms. Therefore, in the first place, the relationship between agricultural issue and conduct of the Vietnamese leaders is analysed, including the process of collectivization over the 1950s to 1970s. Here, the nature of this process is outlined, as well as its role in designing a socialist system of agriculture and its consequences. It provides the starting point of the reform that begun in the 1980s and brought about decollectivization and': liberalisation of the economy. Agricultural reforms are presented in relation to other institutional changes and new factors like liberalisation of prices, foreign investment etc. The country is open up to the world, so not only politics but also economy must fit the worldwide standard in many fields. Agriculture seems to be left behind in comparison with other sectors. Almost ten years after the beginning of the reform, one of the problems left is land ownership in rural areas, dísregarded by the Land Law 1993.