Greckokatolicka rodzina chłopska w ziemi chełmskiej w końcu XVIII w.
A UNIATE PEASANT FAMILY IN THE LAND OF CHELM AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
Languages of publication
The intention of this article is to analyse the structure of the population and family farmsteads at the end of the eighteenth century in three Uniate (Greek Catholic) parishes situated in the north-eastern part of the land of Chelm. The results were compared with findings relating to Roman Catholic parishes in the western parts of the Kingdom of Poland, primarily in Greater Poland. The study was based on parish population polls conducted by the local rectors in 1791–1792 upon the request of the Civilian-Military Order Commissions. The Greek Catholic parishes revealed a population structure different than the one in their Roman Catholic counterparts; the same holds true for peasant farmsteads with a similar number of persons per single farm, i.e. 6–7. There is a distinctive connection between the considerable participation of relatives within the structure of the Uniate peasant household and the small number of servants and tenant farmers, almost absent in the examined parishes. In the studied community tenant farmers constituted 2,7% of the population, servants – 2%, and relatives – 33,6%, while in parishes situated in the west tenant farmers totalled 7,3–16,4%, servants – 12,5–24,4%, and relatives – 4,5-14,1% of the whole population. The large participation of relatives in the employment structure of the farmsteads in the eastern parishes unquestionably reduced the need for a hired labour force, while the care for and protection of old relatives, incapable of working, decreased the percentage of tenant farmers in the whole population. The presence of numerous relatives in peasant farmsteads denoted also a small number of nuclear families, which in the examined parishes totalled 41,3% of the whole population, while in the western parishes was never lower than 62%.
Publication order reference