The Constitutional Charter of the Czechoslovak Republic of 1920 enshrined the principle of gender equality. Nevertheless, several legal provisions that were contrary to this principle remained in force. The social emancipation of women, however, had better conditions in the newly created state than it was in the former AustriaHungary Empire. The aim of the paper is to present the various types of sources by means of which it is possible to investigate the position of women in the city of Košice between 1918 – 1938; namely the possibilities of higher (in today's secondary school) education of girls and women, the employment of women in the field of education and health, and the involvement of women in the public sphere by working in the various associations that existed in the city. These three areas are among the basic indicators of the position of women in society, since education and associations were both a prerequisite and a means of female emancipation. The research was carried out in archives and libraries located in Košice, Bratislava and Prague. The research and collection of sources was carried out during the processing of this issue, followed by their critical evaluation.